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Sleep After Trauma: How traumatic events impact sleep and well-being

Trauma and Sleep

This article has been reproduced with the kind permission of Mattress Advisor. You can find the original article here.

To better understand the relationship between traumatic events and sleep, we surveyed over 1,000 people who reported experiencing a traumatic life event that negatively impacted their sleep. Seeing as the definition of trauma is very broad, we narrowed the qualifying experiences down to the most commonly reported in a preliminary survey: traumatic grief or separation; emotional abuse or psychological maltreatment; a serious accident, fire, or explosion; bullying; physical abuse or assault; serious illness or medical procedure; sexual assault or abuse; and a victim of or witness to domestic violence. Keep reading to learn more.

From Distressed to Deprivation

Despite little being known about why we sleep, scientists have figured out exactly how much sleep we need to stay healthy. Adults require seven to nine hours of sleep every night, with anything less than seven negatively impacting health. But quality sleep can be hard to come by, especially when stress and anxiety levels are high. For those who experience trauma, their quantity and quality of sleep are often diminished. 

On average, women who experienced one of the traumatic events studied reported losing an average of 129.7 minutes of sleep each night, nearly half an hour more than their male counterparts.

Respondents who reported experiencing a serious illness or medical procedure reported losing an average of 130.5 minutes of sleep, followed by 126.4 minutes lost by those who experienced sexual assault or abuse. Considering the average American only sleeps 6.8 hours each night, losing two hours of sleep due to traumatic events likely means those affected are getting significantly less than the recommended amount of sleep. 

Consistent sleep loss can lead to sleep deprivation, adding to the symptoms people may already be experiencing from the traumatic events themselves. Lack of sleep not only leaves you extra drowsy during the day but also can cause overall fatigue, irritability, depressed mood, cognitive deficits, and various physical changes.

Lasting Effects

A single night of sleep loss can lead to negative effects the next day, but for those who have experienced trauma, sleep loss is most likely to last for months.

Around 34 percent of both men and women reported losing sleep for months after experiencing trauma compared to 10 percent of men and less than 5 percent of women who reported losing sleep for mere days. There also was a significant difference in the resolution between the genders. Nearly 25 percent of women said their sleep problems continued to be unresolved, while only 14 percent of men said the same.

Female victims of or witnesses to domestic violence reported losing sleep for the longest amount of time – averaging over two years (30.8 months) of sleep problems. Female sexual assault or abuse survivors also neared the two-year mark for loss of sleep, averaging 21.7 months.

Experiencing a traumatic event often leads to the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, with many symptoms involving sleep disturbance. Not only do traumatic events and PTSD cause anxiety and depression symptoms to increase but also many victims experience insomnia, or difficulty falling asleep, and nightmares – both of which have a significantly negative impact on the quality and amount of sleep one even manages to get.

Sleep Struggles

After experiencing a traumatic event, sleep can suffer in a variety of ways. We asked our respondents about the type of sleeping disorder or interfering symptoms that keep them up at night.

Nearly 80 percent of respondents reported suffering from insomnia, a common condition that can have serious consequences for physical and mental health. Having difficulty falling or staying asleep for a long period increases the risk of stroke, seizures, obesity, heart disease, mental health disorders, and even shortens life expectancy. 

Almost half of those with sleep problems reported trying to alleviate them. The majority (70 percent) turned to sleep aid medications, but it was only effective for 57 percent of those who tried it. Although only 35 percent tried medications other than sleep aids, 61 percent found the method to be effective. Cognitive behavioral therapy was rated the most effective method of treating sleep problems, but it was also the least undertaken. 

While there are numerous treatments and sleep aids that can help combat insomnia, when insomnia is a symptom of a bigger problem, it’s better to treat the root cause. Otherwise, relief is only temporary.

Methods of Mediation

Your sleeping environment can have a big impact on your quality and duration of sleep. For those who don’t have chronic insomnia, there are environmental changes that can lead to a better night’s sleep. Here are some of the activities respondents engage in to help get some much-needed shut-eye. 

Around 30 percent of respondents changed the position or arrangement of their furniture, and 27 percent installed blackout curtains. Thirty-six percent tried sleeping with the TV on, a change that may do more harm than good. While some background noise may help people fall asleep faster, the blue light and changes in brightness and volume that occur while the TV is on can impact the quality of sleep. Sleeping with the TV on can keep you in the lighter stages of the sleep cycle, preventing your body from experiencing the stages where memories are consolidated and restorative work is done. 

Background noise that has been proven to help sleep, however, also happens to be the method most tried. Forty-three percent of respondents tried playing white noise to help them sleep, an evidence-based method that has been proven to workWhite noise is very bland and not much fun to listen to, but that is exactly why it aids sleep. Loud noises and changes in volume, like those from TVs, can easily alert the brain to wake up. When white noise is playing in the background, though, other noises are drowned out by the monotone sound, preventing you from being roused from slumber.

You’re Not Alone

Everybody is different and what works for one may not work for another. But when people have shared experiences, even if the details differ, there are certain pieces of advice worth following. 

Many of the people surveyed advised that fellow sufferers reach out and get help. Seeking out a professional for treatment is nothing to be ashamed of. It’s important to fight the stigma, and remember you are not alone. Reaching out and seeking help can be life-saving.

Find Your Sleep Solution

Getting a good night’s rest can seem impossible when recurring thoughts keep you from drifting off, and nightmares wake you up, but there is help out there. Don’t be afraid to reach out and ask for a helping hand because you’re not alone. The sleep you’re missing out on can have detrimental effects to both your mental and physical health and can prolong the underlying problem. 

If a change in environment is the method you want to try next, it may be time to look at your mattress. A good mattress is key for a quality night’s rest, and at Mattress Advisor, we’re here to help. No need to worry about picking the perfect mattress yourself; just take our Mattress Finder Quiz and let the experts do the work.


Methodology

We surveyed 1,013 people using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Respondents had to report they’d experienced a traumatic event that negatively impacted their sleep to qualify for the survey. 

For this study, we looked at a specific set of traumatic events. We used the types of trauma and violence categories from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and ran a preliminary survey. The final list of traumas we decided to explore in this project was determined based on the results of the preliminary survey. If a survey participant did not select one of the traumas presented in this project, they were disqualified from the survey. 

Neglect and bullying were also traumas included in our study. However, due to low sample sizes for these traumas, they were excluded from our visualization of the data. 

Respondents were 61.8 percent women and 38.2 percent men. The average age of respondents was 36.5 with a standard deviation of 11.1.

All averages included throughout this project were calculated to exclude outliers in the data. 

This was done by finding the initial average and standard deviation of the data. Then, we multiplied the standard deviation by two and added that amount to the initial average. Any data points above that sum were then excluded. 

In parts of this project, the averages for the number of months of negatively affected sleep after trauma are broken down by gender and trauma experienced. It should be noted that some of the groups had lower sample sizes than normal. These have been marked in the study. 

Sleep problems occurring after trauma are discussed in this project. In addition to the options included here, respondents were also given the option of reporting dreams as a sleep consequence after trauma. This was excluded from the final visualization of the data. 

The parts of this project that deal with methods and environmental changes used to alleviate trauma-related sleep problems are based on the people who reported using them. For example, respondents had to first report that they tried methods or environmental changes to treat their sleep problems before answering questions about specific methods and changes. Of all respondents, 49.7 percent reported using methods to alleviate their sleep problems. In terms of environmental changes, 31.2 percent of respondents reported employing them to improve their sleep.

Sources 
Fair Use Statement

We all face difficult experiences in our lives. Every type of trauma impacts us in many ways, and that can often include how long and how well we sleep. If someone you know is struggling or you want to start a conversation about mental health, you are free to share this study. If you choose to do so, please link back to here so that people have the chance to review the entire project and its methodology.

This article was written for Mattress Adivisor and we have been given permission to reproduce the article for our website. We have made a small edit to the original, removing two paragraphs concerning mental illness. Thank you to Mattress Advisor and the author for allowing us to share this research and information on our website.

Can A Hormonal Imbalance Negatively Impact One’s Behaviour?

Jane Fisher discusses  why hormonal imbalances can be a root cause of mental health challenges and that this occurs much more frequently than most would think.

A hormonal imbalance is defined by medical experts as “too much or too little of a hormone in the bloodstream.” Although hormonal imbalances are often discussed as a problem that primarily affects women, men can also experience health issues related to an excess or deficiency of hormones. In addition to the physical symptoms that can result, various mental health challenges can also occur as a result of a hormonal imbalance. When the chemistry of one’s body changes significantly, mental health conditions that lead to hearing voices can occur. Because there are so many health problems that can cause changes in one’s cognitive state, it is crucial to become familiar with those conditions and symptoms. 

Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and the like have the power to do much more than create unpleasant physical symptoms. Certain hormone-linked health conditions can actually lead to mental health disorders. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two examples of this. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland becomes overactive, leading to excess production of the hormone thyroxine. Conversely, hypothyroidism is characterised by an underactive thyroid gland. In this case, not enough of the thyroid hormone is produced. Individuals who have been diagnosed with either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism can develop anxiety, moodiness, depression, and panic attacks. They can also experience fatigue and insomnia, which can result in further behavioural changes.

Hormonal imbalances after pregnancy

Whether a woman has just had her first child or fifth child, postnatal hormonal changes have been shown to cause significant shifts in behaviour and mental health. Up to 80% of mothers who have just given birth experience some level of sadness or anxiety. This is due to the sharp decrease of both progesterone and estrogen that occurs after childbirth. Additionally, a condition known as postnatal depression is characterised by loss of interest in activities, difficulty controlling one’s anger, intense sadness, feelings of anxiety, crying, and moodiness.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Although many have heard of premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (or PMDD) is a far more severe hormonal condition. This condition can result in severe depression symptoms, intense anxiety, irritability, feelings of hopelessness, and decreased interest in many activities. Even though the symptoms ultimately go away after a short period of time, it is crucial for women who have these symptoms to seek treatment (since they will continue to come back each month).

Although most people do not initially think of a hormonal imbalance as the root cause of mental health challenges, this occurs much more frequently than most would think. The conditions listed above are just a sample of the potential health conditions that trigger a hormonal imbalance, and resulting behaviour changes. If you or someone you know could be experiencing a shift in personality due to a hormonal imbalance, it is important to seek medical advice as soon as possible.

Increasing Mental Well-Being by Increasing Accessibility

The Desire for Full Integration

Increasing mental well-being begins by understanding what it means to those who need to increase it.

Jane Fisher discusses increasing mental well-being begins by understanding what it means to those who need to increase it. Working to effectively understand not just the needs of those who hear voices but understand the community they live in on a day-to-day basis is a great start.

Last year, there were 66,620 people with physical or sensory disabilities registered in Wales. Of these, not all had adequate access to mental health care or physical spaces in which they felt comfortable expressing their needs, especially regarding psychiatric care. Increasing accessibility to mental health services is only one challenge. Other challenges include accessibility features that cater specifically to the needs of those who hear voices so that they can successfully participate in Welsh society and workplaces.

A study conducted regarding what those living with the diagnosis of schizophrenia need to increase their well-being found that taking part in social contacts such as attending meetings at work and receiving home visits from medical professionals or loved ones was incredibly important. Engaging in secure professional relationships was deemed incredibly important in allowing the subjects in the study to integrate into society in a way that made them feel positive and increased their mental well-being. This begs the question of what medical professionals and Welsh society can do to cater to these needs. Because professional interactions were so important, these changes can begin in the workplace.

Technology That Increases Accessibility

Smart technology isn’t just for making your life at home easier. It’s being integrated into workplaces all over the world in an effort to increase productivity as well as accessibility. Research released recently shows that wearable technology can be helpful for people with mood disorders or who live on the schizophrenia spectrum. The technology included in these devices can monitor things such as levels of mental attention. Non-gelled electroencephalogram and electrodes can be processed to assess the attention level of a person and that data can be used to help them understand how to increase their mental and social awareness in situations like one might encounter in the workplace. The ability to monitor social interaction and possibly, in the future, brain activity are other noted benefits of wearable smart technology in terms of accessibility.

Access to More Data

What’s great about smart technology is that it provides mental health professional with a treasure trove of data regarding the behaviours and needs of people all over Wales. This data can not only be used to understand what is needed to increase mental well-being but also used to understand why, when, how, and where certain schizophrenic episodes take place. That kind of data is invaluable in a community like Wales where it’s generally hard to access the resources needed to engage in comprehensive studies that yield actionable results.

A Better World for All

Increasing mental well-being begins by understanding what it means to those who need to increase it. Working to effectively understand not just the needs of those who hear voices but understand the community they live in on a day-to-day basis is a great start. With the help of smart technology and the data it can collect, mental health professionals in Wales can begin to increase access to proper health care and develop higher-level solutions.

Found in Translation

Is Asperger’s syndrome the next stage of human evolution?

Professor Tony Attwood believes the “out of the box” thought processes of people on the autism spectrum will solve the world’s big problems.

He is credited with being the first clinical psychologist to present Asperger’s syndrome not as something to be “fixed ” but as a gift, evidenced in many of the great inventors and artists throughout history.

Professor Attwood is highly regarded for his ability to connect with and bring out the talents of people with Asperger’s. He describes himself as a translator between the “neurotypical” and Asperger’s worlds.

You can see the video presentation here,

Source: Australian Story, ABC, September 2017 (Australia)

Gwen Adshead on treating the minds of violent offenders

The Life Scientific, 26th Februry 2019, BBC Radio 4

“Whether it’s a news story or television drama, human violence appals and fascinates in equal measure. Yet few of us choose to dwell on what preoccupies the mind of a perpetrator for long. 

Professor Gwen Adshead, however, thinks about little else. As a Forensic Psychotherapist, she works with some of the most vilified and rejected members of society. They are the violent offenders who are detained in prisons and in secure NHS hospitals, like Broadmoor, whose actions have been linked to their mental illness. 

Gwen has sought to understand the psychological mechanisms behind their violent behaviour so that she can help them. A pioneer in the field, she provides an environment in which men and women are encouraged to speak the unspeakable and think the unthinkable, in the hope that they will one day be able to change their minds.”

You can listen to the programme here

She died, went to hell and heaven, then woke up at the morgue

Testimony from Paulina who shares about when she died in a bus accident and went to hell, then to heaven, had an encounter with Jesus and then woke up at the morgue.

You Say

Lauren Daigle

I keep fighting voices in my mind that say I’m not enough
Every single lie that tells me I will never measure up
Am I more than just the sum of every high and every low?
Remind me once again just who I am, because I need to know

You say I am loved when I can’t feel a thing
You say I am strong when I think I am weak You say I am held when I am falling short
When I don’t belong, You say I am Yours
And I believe, I believe
What You say of me
I believe

You say I am held when I am falling short
When I don’t belong, You say I am Yours
And I believe, I believe
What You say of me
I believe

The only thing that matters now is everything You think of me
In You I find my worth, in You I find my identity

You say I am loved when I can’t feel a thing
You say I am strong when I think I am weak
You say I am held when I am falling short
When I don’t belong, You say I am Yours
And I believe, I believe
What You say of me
I believe

Taking all I have and now I’m laying it at Your feet
You have every failure, God
You’ll have every victory

You say I am loved when I can’t feel a thing
You say I am strong when I think I am weak
You say I am held when I am falling short
When I don’t belong, You say I am Yours
And I believe, I believe
What You say of me
I believe

Oh, I believe
Yes, I believe
What You say of me
Oh, I believe

The mind unravelling

The Mind Unravelling, Start The Week. BBC Radio 4

How far does evolution explain mental health? The psychiatrist Randolph Nesse tells Kirsty Wark that negative emotions make sense in certain situations but can become excessive. He argues that positioning disorders in light of natural selection helps explain the ubiquity of human suffering – and may help in finding new paths for relieving it.

The neuropsychologist AK Benjamin investigates the boundaries of sanity and madness in his book, Let Me Not Be Mad. Through a series of consultations with patients, he explores the mind unravelling at the seams. But the question remains whether this unravelling mind belongs to the doctor or the patient.

The poet George Szirtes looks at the damaging impact of international events on a single family, in his memoir of his mother Magda. The Photographer At Sixteen follows Magda from her teenage life in Hungary, through political uprisings, internment in two concentration camps and transition to life in England. He explores the effect of an unravelling world on a family’s mental health.

You can listen to the programme on Start the Week BBC Radio 4 (Transmission 11th February 2019)

A Clean Home And Your Mental Health: Explaining The Relationship

Having a clean, tidy home helps you feel more organised, relaxed and can indirectly help the one in ten people living with voices. People living with diagnoses such as schizophrenia and people hearing voices have been shown to benefit from a relaxing environment and techniques, according to mental health charity, Mind UK and Rufus May. Recently, there has been much said about the link and importance of mental health in the workplace environment, but the maintenance of your home environment can also play a part in your overall mental health. 

Clutter Affects Our Self Esteem

A disorganised home can impact your mood and how you feel about yourself. Studies in the past including one by UCLA researchers have repeatedly established a link between clutter and mental conditions such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In 2016, comparethemarket.com found that the UK hoards the most clutter across Europe. One in two British people admitted to holding onto stuff longer than they should.

Women seemed to be more affected by the relationship between a tidy environment and stress levels, according to a University of California study. Overall, 85 percent of adults in the UK were regularly stressed as of January 2018. With a tidier home, you are shown to feel more relaxed and make better food choices. Both of these are irrevocably linked to mental health and self-esteem. An unclean home also means that physically, both you and your family (particularly children) are increasingly exposed to toxic fungi making you prone to immune reactions such as asthma.

A Clean Home Means Higher Energy Levels

A cleaner home can also boost your energy levels. People with tidier home environments reported that they got better sleep; a key influencer of your energy levels. In 2011, the National Sleep Foundation confirmed this link in a study where three-fourths of the participants said a clean, quiet room was important for their sleep. A better night sleep acts as a restorative to your body functions. Depression has also been linked to fatigue and the sleep quality which forms an indirect connection between depression and a clean home. 

Better Concentration And Focus

Organisation in the home and the workplace helps to channel focus and concentration. Productivity rises in environments that are not cluttered or messy due to the increased ease of performing the tasks needed.

This has been applied and proven in the workplace by multiple researchers and the same premise applies at home. A messy environment can increase the time taken to perform simple tasks, remained focused and negatively affect your stress levels. The Centre for Facilities Research released a study showing 88 percent of its participants found a messy environment to be a distraction while order promoted concentration and learning. 

Having a clean house does more than help you feel accomplished and happy. It supports your physical health by reducing your chances for illnesses including allergic reactions and asthmatic flare-ups. It also reduces stress, fatigue and promotes better mental health all around.

You can read more articles by Jane Fisher here

Safe Spaces for Suffering & Joy

Safe Spaces for Suffering & Joy is our sixth Compassionate Mental Health gathering, and our first to be held in London. As with our previous events, we are bringing together a wide cross section of people with a shared interest in transforming the way we live and work with mental health crises and distress.

This one-day gathering is an opportunity to explore alternative approaches for living and working with mental distress. We’ll look together at how we can create spaces for people to experience suffering and joy – spaces that are safe, compassionate and balance open-hearted, non-hierarchical relationships with wise boundaries.

Safe Spaces for Suffering & Joy takes place on Monday 1 April 2019 at Kingsley Hall in Bromley-by-Bow, London.

You can go here to
for the event here.

Is Your Job Putting Your Health at Risk?

Sometimes, we don’t even realise how demanding our jobs are, but the 9-5 working routine takes a toll on both your mind and body. In today’s society, a job is often more than a way of earning money. It’s a part of our identity and sometimes even a lifestyle of its own. This means that many of us will end up doing more hours that we’re contracted to, just in an effort to do our jobs well. In the UK, more than 5.3 million people do an average of 7.7 hours unpaid overtime every single week. Whilst chasing professional success is an admirable thing, it shouldn’t come at the expense of your physical and mental health. If you’ve been feeling consistently ill or stressed, your work could be to blame.

The majority of us work in desk-based jobs, which don’t exactly seem like dangerous environments to be in. However, working 10 years in a sedentary role can actually double your risk of getting colon cancer. In some workplaces, staff might be exposed to toxic chemicals on a regular basis. In some professions, like dentistry and radiology, physical health risks like this cannot be avoided. However, it’s important that employees are able to properly protect themselves from risks like this and also take breaks when they need to. In other professions such as lorry driving, expose to toxic chemicals is not generally expected. However, bladder and lung cancers are more prevalent in drivers because of the toxic chemicals in car materials.

Health issues caused by work can usually be solved by having a good work-life balance. Having sufficient time outside of work to look after ourselves whether that’s by getting enough rest, exercising or socialising, is crucial to our performance at work. There are even studies that have shown that happy employees are 20% more productive than unhappy employees. It’s in the interest of everyone that employees get enough time outside of their jobs.

With our thanks to Katie Myers who writes for Stanley R Harris.. Katie created this infographic and wrote the introduction above.

This infographic from the team at Stanley R Harris looks at the physical and mental health risks commonly faced in different professions. Hopefully, it will encourage people to prioritise their health when they need to. Whilst pursuing a successful career can be great for your personal fulfilment, it’s important for your physical and mental health to take time outside of working hours to properly recuperate – doing so will benefit both your health and your career.


Relating to Voices, 3 April, Oxford

Wednesday 3rd April | 10.00 – 16.00 pm | St Catherine’s College, Oxford University | Manor Road | Oxford OX1 3UJ

On 3 April, the Educational Voice-Hearing Network will be delivering an all-day seminar on ‘Relating to Voices’. The event takes place in the Collaborating Centre for Values-based Practice in Health and Social Care, St Catherine’s College, Oxford University. For more information about the event go here

Places are free. Demand for places is expected to be high, so early booking is advised. A free lunch at St Catherine’s College is included. To book a place, click here.

News and Events

 

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Communicating Through The Creative Arts To Express Your Voices

Jane Fisher writes about the importance of art as a medium to support people better understand the meaning of their voice hearing experience

Art therapy has been recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) since as far back as 2008 for the treatment of people diagnosed with Schizophrenia, when the then co-director of the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, Dr. Tim Kendall, who helped to write the guidance, said “Dance, art and music therapy all seem to have a positive benefit.” The artist’s muse in the case of someone facing emotional distress, overwhelm and extreme states is the feeling, the sensation, or even the voices that they are hearing, and the guidance suggests that art therapy works particularly well in helping address a lack of motivation, apathy, and avoidance of social situations. Since the advent of the internet, these artistic endeavours by people can now be shared with friends and family, and there has been a real growth of advice and support that is now available online, especially by those who have previously had or still have mental health challenges.

Art particularly beneficial as an early intervention

Even though a comprehensive literature review on the benefits of art for people experiencing psychosis considers “art therapy to be a beneficial, meaningful, and acceptable intervention,” more and more thinking is coalescing around an even greater impact of art therapy on people with the diagnosis of schizophrenia at the earliest stage of treatment and support. Known as early intervention psychosis services, an article in the International Journal of Art Therapy shows the benefits of art therapy in reducing the impact of episodes of psychosis by focusing on channelling feelings through the creative medium of art. For those who may struggle with the basics of creating art, there are useful starter guides available online.  This therapeutic practice shows the power of art as therapy, in contradistinction to art in therapy (where art may be used to facilitate a discussion between a therapist and their patient).

A therapeutic self-portrait

This theme of art as therapy was brought to life through a touring exhibition called ‘Reassembling the Self’ that toured the United Kingdom in 2015. Two artists with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, Camille Ormston, and Kevin Mitchinson, presented their self-portraits and did not shy away from themes such as emotional pain, distorted boundaries, and perceptual abnormalities. Art has also been used in a crisis context too, and this very insightful case study of a man  shows some of the artwork he drew as he battled with articulating the challenges he was facing at the time. These ranged from a ‘bear’ that was hovering around him, through to the visualising of his fears. This visualisation helped calm him, as he was able to articulate his fears through his artwork.  

Art has a very powerful role in helping transform unconscious thoughts into communicable conscious visual imagery. Its role in helping decipher feelings, thoughts, and emotions that are sometimes inaccessible to us, and helping us make sense of the voices that we hear, is a very powerful tool to be able to use in order to better manage mental health challenges.

11th World Hearing Voices Congress, Montreal, Canada: Call For Papers

Click here for more details of how to submit a proposal.

Hearing Voices in the Bible

Ivan Barry

In Part Four of Ivan Barry’s audio presentation about hearing voices, entitled “Flames, Flashes and Voices in the Sky”, Ivan considers voice hearing in the Old and New Testaments. Characters in this talk include Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Jesus, Saul and Ananias.

You can listen to the rest of the talk here

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